Diphtheria toxoid-containing microparticulate powder formulations for pulmonary vaccination: Preparation, characterization and evaluation in guinea pigs

Publication Type:

Journal Article


Vaccine, Volume 25, Number 37-38, pp. 6818-6829 (2007)



DOI Name (links to online publication)



n-trimethyl chitosan (tmc) microparticles; supercritical carbon dioxide; pulmonary vaccine delivery; diphtheria toxoid; trimethyl chitosan chloride; supercritical-fluid technology; influenza subunit antigen; in-vivo; intranasal vaccination; delivery-syste


this study, the potential of N-Trimethyl chitosan (TMC, degree of quaternization 50%) and dextran microparticles for pulmonary delivery of diphtheria toxoid (DT) was investigated. The antigen-containing microparticles were prepared by drying of an aqueous solution of polymer and DT through a supercritical fluid (SCF) spraying process. The median volume diameter of the dry particles, as determined by laser diffraction analysis, was between 2 and 3 mu m and the fine particle mass fractions smaller than 5 mu m, as determined by cascade impactor analysis, were 35 and 56% for the dextran and TMC formulations, respectively. The water content of the particles as measured by Karl-Fischer titration was 2-3% (w/w). Pulmonary immunization with DT-TMC microparticles containing 2 or 10 Lf of DT resulted in a strong immunological response as reflected by the induction of IgM, IgG, IgG subclasses (IgG1 and IgG2) antibodies as well as neutralizing antibody titers comparable to or significantly higher than those achieved after subcutaneous (SC) administration of alum-adsorbed DT (2 Lf). Moreover, the IgG2/IgG1 ratio after pulmonary immunization with DT-TMC microparticles was substantially higher as compared to SC administered alum-adsorbed DT. In contrast, pulmonarily administered DT-dextran particles were poorly immunogenic. Among the tested formulations only pulmonarily administered DT-contairling TMC microparticles induced detectable pulmonary secretory IgA levels. In conclusion, in this paper it is demonstrated that TMC microparticles are a potent new delivery system for pulmonary administered DT antigen. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.