Immune Modulation by Adjuvants Combined with Diphtheria Toxoid Administered Topically in BALB/c Mice After Microneedle Array Pretreatment

Publication Type:

Journal Article


Pharmaceutical Research, Volume 26, Number 7, pp. 1635-1643 (2009)



DOI Name (links to online publication)



cholera toxin; cpg; diphtheria toxoid; microneedle array; transcutaneous immunization; cross-reacting material; transcutaneous immunization; cholera-toxin; epidermal-keratinocytes; intradermal delivery; antibody-responses; cutting edge; quil-a; vaccine; s


In this study, modulation of the immune response against diphtheria toxoid (DT) by various adjuvants in transcutaneous immunization (TCI) with microneedle array pretreatment was investigated.TCI was performed on BALB/c mice with or without microneedle array pretreatment using DT as a model antigen co-administrated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Quil A, CpG oligo deoxynucleotide (CpG) or cholera toxin (CT) as adjuvant. The immunogenicity was evaluated by measuring serum IgG subtype titers and neutralizing antibody titers.TCI with microneedle array pretreatment resulted in a 1,000-fold increase of DT-specific serum IgG levels as compared to TCI. The immune response was further improved by co-administration of adjuvants, showing a progressive increase in serum IgG titers when adjuvanted with LPS, Quil A, CpG and CT. IgG titers of the CT-adjuvanted group reached levels comparable to those obtained after DT-alum subcutaneous injection. The IgG1/IgG2a ratio of DT-specific antibodies decreased in the following sequence: plain DT, Quil A, CT and CpG, suggesting that the immune response was skewed towards the Th1 direction.The potency and the quality of the immune response against DT administered by microneedle array mediated TCI can be modulated by co-administration of adjuvants.