Nasal and (epi) dermal vaccine delivery

A currently expanding research line is non-invasive or minimally invasive vaccine delivery. Novel particulate carrier systems are designed, characterized and evaluated for their ability to deliver subunit vaccines via the nasal epithelium or the dermal route to the immune system and elicit the desired immune response. In vitro cell culture and tissue models are being developed to study the interactions between the delivery systems with the absorbing membranes and relevant cells (e.g., dendritic cells). To deliver vaccines to the Langerhans cells in the skin, microneedle array technologies and antigen-loaded elastic vesicles are used. A number of techniques have been developed to determine and control the needle penetration in the skin in vitro and in vivo.